Liebert and other experts will be debating these issues and more at the Third Annual Congress on Women's Health, which begins today in Washington.
The conference, sponsored by the Society for the Advancement of Women's Health Research, the American Medical Women's Association and the Journal of Women's Health, is intended to place a national spotlight on medical and policy issues affecting women's health.
Women still are not recruited into research trials as frequently as men and that fact could cost them precious years of health, experts say.
Some women worry about whether federal money will be available for research in an era of tight budget restraints.
And a recent survey shows that a third of American women think their overall health care is poorly managed.
A current debate over the use of estrogen by post-menopausal women illustrates the paradoxical nature of recent women's health advances, experts say.
Estrogen, the number-one prescription medication in the United States, has long been hailed as a wonder drug. Some post-menopausal women who take pills containing the female hormone, as part of hormone replacement therapy, report decreased discomfort, a less disabling aging process, and a lower risk of heart disease.
But just as a demographic surge of baby boom women have hit their
menopausal years, they have been greeted by new research concluding that long- term use of estrogen may increase the risk of breast cancer.
"It's the perfect example of the sort of emotional choices women are being forced to make when it comes to treatment," Liebert said. "Often, they're having to make them based on a lot of fears and uncertainties, and that's attributable to the gaps in research."
That uncertainty is underscored by the results of a recent telephone survey of 500 women conducted by the Warner Wellcome Healthcare Corp. The study found that 34 percent of the women believed their health care was poorly managed, and 44 percent thought their care was only adequate.
The women answering the survey said they believed women needed greater choice and increased access to medicine to help them manage their health. Forty-eight percent said they believed that doctors did not take women's health concerns as seriously as men's, and they did not feel they received the level of care and attention from their doctors that men did.
A big part of the problem, said Kathleen B. Drennan, president of the Chicago Center for Clinical Research, is that researchers do not know enough about women's diseases, or the biological differences between men and women that might make them respond differently to certain therapies. Before the mid- 1970s, women were routinely omitted from medical research trials.
"Not only did you have major studies released on heart disease and cancer, which are major killers of women, but no women were studied," Drennan said.
Many experts point to the Harvard Nurses Study as an important early breakthrough for women's health research. Begun in the late '70s, the study tracked the health practices of 120,000 nurses across the country.
That study has yielded information on heart disease, osteoporosis and hormone replacement therapy. Just last week, researchers using data from the study concluded that there was no link between breast implants and autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma.
Another boon to women's health research was the establishment of the Office on Women's Health Research at the National Institutes of Health. Opened in 1991, the office in September launched the Women's Health Initiative, a $628 million, 15-year study of the effects on women of ailments such as heart disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer.
Researchers will study 63,000 women ages 50 to 79 in their clinical trials. An additional 100,000 women will be observed but not involved in the clinical phase. Researchers hope to develop new therapies and approaches to managing ailments that plague women.
But as research budgets tighten, Drennan said, there is a danger that scientists may rely on existing data instead of launching new studies.
That danger is underscored by developments in Congress, where both the House and Senate have voted to cut nearly $1 billion from the NIH budget over seven years.
"Where do you think they'll start cutting first?" Drennan said. "I'll tell you. In research on lupus, and estrogen and other areas that affect women, that's where."