Polanco earned a $50,000 performance bonus for winning the Gold Glove.
The only other player to win Gold Gloves at multiple positions was Darin Erstad, who did so at first base (2004) and leftfield (2000, '02).
Polanco won two AL Gold Gloves as a second baseman, netting the honors while a member of the Tigers in 2007 and 2009.
Phillies centerfielder Shane Victorino saw his streak of three straight Gold Gloves snapped as the award went to the Dodgers' Matt Kemp.
Kemp, Andre Ethier and Clayton Kershaw became the first trio of Dodgers to win NL Gold Gloves in the same year, and Adrian Gonzalez, Dustin Pedroia and Jacoby Ellsbury became the first three Red Sox in 32 seasons to win the AL honor together.
The St. Louis Cardinals' Yadier Molina became the first NL catcher to win in 4 straight years since Charles Johnson from 1995-98.
Cincinnati first baseman Joey Votto and second baseman Brandon Phillips also won along with Colorado shortstop Troy Tulowitzki and Arizona outfielder Gerardo Parra. Phillips and Tulowitzki joined Molina as the NL holdovers.
Chicago White Sox pitcher Mark Buehrle was the lone AL holdover, winning for the third straight year. Baltimore's Matt Wieters won at catcher, the Angels' Erick Aybar at shortstop, Texas' Adrian Beltre at third, and Kansas City's Alex Gordon and Baltimore's Nick Markakis in the outfield.
This year's AL group displaced Minnesota catcher Joe Mauer; Yankees first baseman Mark Teixeira, second baseman Robinson Cano and shortstop Derek Jeter; Tampa Bay third baseman Evan Longoria; former Rays outfielder Carl Crawford; and Seattle outfielders Ichiro Suzuki and Franklin Gutierrez.
Suzuki's streak of Gold Gloves ended at 10. The rightfielder, who had won in every one of his big-league seasons, had tied the AL record for Gold Gloves by an outfielder shared by Ken Griffey Jr. and Al Kaline.
Managers and coaches vote for players in their leagues and can't pick players on their own teams.
Daily News wire services contributed to this story.