The brigade restructuring is intended to save money without eroding the military's ability to protect the country and wage war when needed. Army officials contend that while there would be fewer brigades, building them bigger will give them more capabilities and depth, and will reduce stress on the units.
They said specialty units, such as Army special operations forces, would not be affected by the cuts. Reducing the overall number of brigades will also eliminate the need for headquarters units that command and oversee them.
Officials acknowledged that merging battalions into larger brigades could shift some soldiers to different bases, although that effort could be stymied by members of Congress who don't like to see the staffing decline at bases that feed the local economy. Officials said the Army will try to limit such shifts.
The cuts come as the Pentagon puts the finishing touches on its 2013 fiscal year budget, which must reflect about $260 billion in savings in its five-year plan. Congress has ordered the Defense Department to come up with a total of $487 billion over the next 10 years, and could face cuts of double that amount if Congress cannot reach an agreement to avoid automatic across-the-board reductions mandated by lawmakers last year. Officials spoke about the plans on condition of anonymity because they have not yet been made public.
Military leaders, from Defense Secretary Leon Panetta on down, insist they will come up with the budget cuts without hurting the force's effectiveness. According to the officials, plans call for the active duty Army to shrink from a high of about 570,000 soldiers to roughly 490,000 over the next decade or so. Initial cuts have been ongoing, and there are currently about 558,000 active duty soldiers in the Army.
Additionally, there are nearly 205,000 in the Army Reserve and close to 360,000 in the Army National Guard, the Army said Wednesday.
A key priority is to make sure the Army retains midlevel officers, who take up to 10 years to get to the rank of major or higher. Army leaders struggled through periods of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, using bonuses and other incentives to retain the midlevel officers they needed to command smaller units on the battlefield.