The court also is likely to consider several other issues before the November election that could stir Obama's core Democratic supporters and draw crucial independent voters as well. Among those are immigration, voting rights, and a revisit of a campaign-finance ruling that Obama has already criticized as an outrage.
"We haven't seen the end of this," said longtime Supreme Court practitioner Tom Goldstein, who teaches at Stanford and Harvard Universities. "The administration seems to be positioning itself to be able to run against the Supreme Court if it needs to or wants to."
While Obama has predicted victory in the health-care case now before the court, his administration could blame overreach by Republican-appointed justices if the law is rejected, said Goldstein, who wrote a brief supporting the law's constitutionality.
This can be dangerous ground, as Obama discovered. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt, few presidents have directly assailed the Supreme Court. In Obama's case, he issued an indirect challenge, but the former constitutional law professor tripped over the details.
Obama told a news conference on Monday that he was "confident that the Supreme Court will not take what would be an unprecedented, extraordinary step of overturning a law that was passed by a strong majority of a democratically elected Congress."
The Supreme Court does sometimes overturn laws passed by Congress. Obama later clarified that he was referring to a narrow class of constitutional law, but even then Republicans and some court scholars took issue. What's not in question is that the law wasn't approved by a strong majority - the House vote was a slim 219 to 212.
A GOP-appointed federal judge took umbrage at the suggestion that federal courts might be powerless to overturn such laws, and ordered the Justice Department to provide written assurance. He insisted the response be at least three pages, single-spaced.
Attorney General Eric H. Holder took on that task himself, with a letter to the judge on Thursday.
The Supreme Court heard a rare three days of argument on the 2010 health-care overhaul last week, and the court's conservative majority appeared deeply skeptical of the key provision, a requirement for individual health insurance. Justice Antonin Scalia, for one, appeared strongly in favor of striking down the entire law. A decision is expected by July.
Also Thursday, Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell had his say on presidents and the Supreme Court.
"The president did something that as far as I know is completely unprecedented. He not only tried to publicly pressure the court into deciding a pending case in the way he wants it decided; he also questioned its very authority under the Constitution," McConnell said.
The constitutional issue aside, Obama made it clear that the thrust of his argument is political. He ticked off popular elements of the law that are already in force, and said the consequences of losing those protections would be grave for the young and the elderly, in particular.
"I'd just remind conservative commentators that for years what we've heard is, 'The biggest problem on the bench was judicial activism or a lack of judicial restraint,' - that an unelected group of people would somehow overturn a duly constituted and passed law," Obama said. "Well, this is a good example. And I'm pretty confident that this court will recognize that and not take that step."
Obama narrowed and clarified his original statement on Tuesday, under questioning at the Associated Press annual meeting.
As a former law professor, "the president understands judicial precedent. He has a little experience with it, and the importance of judicial review," White House press secretary Jay Carney said.
University of Texas Law School professor and Supreme Court scholar Lucas Powe said Obama's original statement suggests he probably knows the law is in trouble and is seeking political high ground.
"My instinct is that he was laying predicate for a campaign statement," Powe said. "People said he was threatening the court. You can't threaten the Supreme Court."
Holder Letter Assures Court
In a letter written at the request of a federal appellate judge, Attorney General Eric H. Holder on Thursday offered assurances that the Obama administration respects the authority of the courts.
Appeals Court Judge Jerry Smith in Texas requested the letter after President Obama said this week that it would be "unprecedented" for the Supreme Court to overturn a major law passed by Congress like the health-care overhaul whose constitutionality it is now considering.
On Tuesday, saying he was seeking reassurances that the Justice Department recognizes judicial authority, Smith said he wanted a letter of at least three pages that makes specific references to the president's statements.
"The longstanding, historical position of the United States regarding judicial review of the constitutionality of federal legislation has not changed," Holder wrote.
"The department has not in this litigation, nor in any other litigation of which I am aware, ever asked this or any other court to reconsider or limit long-established precedent concerning judicial review," Holder added.
On Tuesday, after his remarks stirred controversy, the president himself had elaborated, saying that the court "is the final say on our Constitution." - AP