It is the first time an American city has directly attempted to limit soda portion sizes, and opponents again accused the three-term mayor of creating a "nanny state" and robbing New Yorkers of the right to choose for themselves.
But city officials said they believe the plan - expected to win approval from the Bloomberg-appointed Board of Health and take effect as soon as March - will ultimately prove popular and push local governments around the country to adopt similar rules.
"We have a crisis of obesity," said city Health Commissioner Thomas Farley. "People often go with the default choice, and if the default choice is something which is very unhealthy and is feeding into that health crisis, it's appropriate for the government to say, 'No, we think the default choice should be healthier."'
The soft drink industry responded with scathing criticism, even as the administration said it felt certain the companies could simply trim back their offerings from 20-ounce bottles to 16-ounce bottles - reversing a trend that has been under way for decades. In the 1950s, McDonald's offered only one size for soft drinks: 7 ounces, city officials said.
Coca-Cola called the ban an "arbitrary mandate."
"The people of New York City are much smarter than the New York City Health Department believes," the company said in a statement. "New Yorkers expect and deserve better than this. They can make their own choices about the beverages they purchase."
The ban would apply only to sweetened drinks over 16 ounces that contain more than 25 calories per 8 ounces. (A 12-ounce can of Coke has about 140 calories.) It would not affect diet soda or any drink that is at least half milk or milk substitute.
Nor would it apply to drinks sold in supermarkets or convenience stores, unless those businesses primarily sell foods meant to be eaten right away. Businesses would face fines of $200 per failed inspection.
City officials said some calorie-heavy drinks such as Starbucks Frappuccinos would probably be exempted because of their dairy content, while the Slurpees at 7-Eleven wouldn't be affected because the stores are regulated as groceries.
Bloomberg said people who want to guzzle more than 16 ounces would still be free to order more than one drink. But he said that restricting sodas to 16 ounces each could still help curb consumption.
"You tend to eat all of the food in the container. If it's bigger, you eat more. If somebody put a smaller glass or plate or bowl in front of you, you would eat less," he said.