In February, the U.S. Attorney's Office in Los Angeles ended a nearly two-year investigation into doping allegations involving Armstrong without bringing criminal charges. Armstrong's former teammates Floyd Landis, a Lancaster County native, and Tyler Hamilton cooperated with federal agents in that investigation and publicly accused Armstrong of doping.
Landis was stripped of his 2006 Tour title for doping and was later convicted by a French court for his role in hacking into the computers of the lab that caught him.
USADA is the quasi-government agency that oversees anti-doping in Olympic sports in the United States. It is empowered to bring charges that could lead to suspension from competition and the rescinding of awards. It does not have authority to bring criminal charges.
"I have never doped, and, unlike many of my accusers, I have competed as an endurance athlete for 25 years with no spike in performance, passed more than 500 drug tests and never failed one," Armstrong said in a statement released by his publicist. "That USADA ignores this fundamental distinction and charges me instead of the admitted dopers says far more about USADA, its lack of fairness, and this vendetta than it does about my guilt or innocence. Any fair consideration of these allegations has and will continue to vindicate me."
USADA's letter, dated June 12, alleges that Armstrong and five former cycling team associates - three doctors, including Italian physician Michele Ferrari; one trainer; and team manager Johan Bruyneel - engaged in a massive doping conspiracy from 1998 to 2011, and that "the witnesses to the conduct described in this letter include more than ten (10) cyclists."
All of the six, including trainer Jose Pepi Marti of Switzerland and doctors Pedro Celaya of Luxembourg and Luis Garcia del Moral of Spain, face competition bans. USADA put all of the alleged violations in one letter, it stated, because it considers the six defendants part of a "long running doping conspiracy."
The letter specifically alleges that "multiple riders with firsthand knowledge" will testify that Armstrong used the blood booster erythropoietin, or EPO; blood transfusions; testosterone; and masking agents, and that he distributed and administered drugs to other cyclists from 1998 to 2005. The letter alleges that numerous witnesses will testify that Armstrong also used human-growth hormone before 1996.
"These charges are a product of malice and spite and not evidence," Robert D. Luskin, Armstrong's Washington-based attorney, said in a telephone interview Wednesday. "Nothing else explains the fact . . . they allege an overarching doping conspiracy among four teams over 14 years, and Lance is the only rider that gets charged."
The letter further claims that Martial Saugy, the director of an anti-doping lab in Switzerland, stated that Armstrong's urine sample results from the 2001 Tour of Switzerland indicated EPO use.
Saugy told the Washington Post last year that Armstrong's sample was merely "suspicious," a designation that meant it could not be called positive. Further analysis with modern methods might bring clarity, Saugy said, but the sample no longer exists.
"We did not do the additional analysis. It will never be sufficient to say, in fact, it was positive," Saugy said. "I will never go in front of a court with that type of thing."
Luskin said USADA sent Armstrong a letter last week asking him to meet with anti-doping officials. Armstrong declined, believing USADA was not interested in his testimony but rather a confession, Luskin said. In its letter, USADA said: "With the exception of Mr. Armstrong, every other U.S. rider contacted by USADA regarding doping in cycling agreed to meet with USADA."
USADA chief executive officer Travis Tygart could not be immediately reached for comment.
Armstrong, who won his last Tour title in 2005, has taken up competition in Ironman triathlons, and was scheduled to compete in the Ironman France in Nice on June 24.
Should Armstrong lose his Tour de France titles, five riders would become champions. Jan Ullrich of Germany, who won the 1997 Tour, finished as a runner-up to Armstrong three times. Ullrich was given a two-year ban and his 2005 third-place finish in the Tour was stripped earlier this year after the Court of Arbitration for Sport ruled that he was part of a blood doping program run by Spanish doctor Eufemiano Fuentes.