Some supporters are trying to help save the rest by borrowing a page from the fair-trade movement. Consumers who buy products such as coffee and chocolate labeled as fair trade pay a little bit more to provide workers with decent wages and sound environmental practices.
Keep Local Farms started in 2009, a year of record low milk prices paid to farmers. Six colleges and universities signed up, including Harvard and the University of Vermont, which contribute 10 cents for every single-serving container of milk sold.
Boston Medical Center, Ski Vermont, and some Ben & Jerry's shops also contribute to the program, while others have displayed signs about the importance of local dairy farms to local economies and tourism and in providing land for recreation.
"It's really from whole cloth. This didn't exist. There isn't really an example of this kind of program for dairy at least," said Diane Bothfeld, deputy secretary of the Vermont Agency of Agriculture, which worked with the New England Family Dairy Farms Cooperative and the New England Dairy Promotion Board to launch the program.
In Wisconsin, another top dairy state, Family Farm Defenders sells fair-trade cheese for about $6 a pound, guaranteeing that the farmers who provide the milk get paid $3 for every pound sold. The farmers set the price to cover the cost of production plus a living wage.
The group sells from $30,000 to $50,000 worth of cheese each year, providing about 30 farms with an estimated $500 to $1,000 a year, executive director John Peck said. The challenge is expanding sales, he said.
In Vermont, where farming is tied to tourism, residents want to help farmers, said Marie Audet, who with her husband owns Blue Spruce Farm in Bridport. Their farm was one of the first in the state to produce electricity from methane gas from cow manure.
Green Mountain Power customers who want to support such renewable-energy projects pay a premium on their electricity bills, with the money going to help dairy farmers buy generators that run on methane.
"They don't have to do that, but they know that part of being in Vermont is the open, working landscape," Audet said.
Still, Robert Cropp, a dairy-marketing specialist and professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, doubted most people would pay more for milk or other products to support family farms.
"Most consumers are far removed from the farm," Cropp said. "They don't understand agriculture and how food is produced and things of this sort."
Keep Local Farms raised $220,000 over two years. After paying taxes, it sent $100 checks to 1,370 farms, or about 75 percent of the dairies left in New England. It's rethinking that approach after hearing from farmers, and might provide grants that could help multiple farms rather than continuing individual payments.
"We had far more success than we expected, and yet it wasn't enough to be meaningful to the pockets of dairy farmers on a long-term basis," said Gary Wheelock, executive director of the New England Dairy Promotion Board.