Recent research bolstering evidence that circumcision reduces chances of infection with HIV and other sexually spread diseases, urinary-tract infections, and penis cancer influenced the academy to update their 13-year-old policy.
Their old stance said potential medical benefits were not sufficient to warrant recommending routinely circumcising newborn boys. The new one says, "The benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it." The academy also says pain relief stronger than a sugar-coated pacifier is essential, usually an injection to numb the area.
The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated circumcision costs range from about $200 to $600 nationwide. Coverage varies among insurers; several states have stopped Medicaid funding for circumcisions.
A recent study projected that declining U.S. circumcision rates could add more than $4 billion in health-care costs in coming years because of increased illness and infections.
Circumcision involves removing foreskin at the tip of the penis. The procedure can reduce germs that can grow underneath the foreskin, and complications, including bleeding and infection, are rare, the academy says.
Despite the U.S. decline, about half of baby boys nationwide still undergo circumcision, or roughly one million each year. The country's overall rate is much higher than in other developed nations.