In response to the housing crisis and the onslaught of foreclosures, the federal government established the Making Home Affordable Program, which includes several strategies to help financially distressed homeowners. Recently, the National Consumer Law Center took a look at one of the largest of those strategies, the Home Affordable Modification Program, or HAMP, which was launched in 2009.
Under HAMP, borrowers can apply to have their monthly mortgage payments lowered to make them more affordable over the long term. Lenders and mortgage-loan servicers don't have to participate. But to encourage modifications, participating servicers are provided with financial incentives to modify loans to help homeowners avoid foreclosure.
Has HAMP been a success?
Yes and no, says the law center.
Before HAMP, nearly half of all loan modifications failed, according to a report by the center. Now, more than 80 percent of the modifications negotiated under HAMP are still in place a year later. The modifications also have significantly lowered re-default and foreclosure rates compared with modifications made outside the program. Almost 850,000 homeowners have HAMP modifications that are working, the report says.
"For the people who got modifications, the program was outstandingly successful," said Diane E. Thompson, a lawyer with the law center and a co-author of the report. "Most would not have gotten modification without HAMP and they would not have gotten the deep and sustainable modifications they needed."
Although the statistics are good, it's still not enough when you compare it to the projected number of borrowers that the administration thought it could help. HAMP hasn't come close to reaching the 3 million to 4 million households first estimated.
"When you look at who needed modifications and who didn't get them or how difficult it was to get one, the program is a failure," Thompson said.
The law center concluded that HAMP would be more successful were it not for "massive servicer noncompliance."
"The assumption is that there are a lot more homeowners who could be helped and lenders could benefit if they did more modifications," said Raymond A. Skinner, Maryland's secretary of housing and community development. "[The Obama administration's] approach has been to encourage lenders to do it voluntarily. Some people here believe lenders are holding back in the hopes the government will put a lot more money in it, essentially bailing them out again."
Nearly 4 million homeowners have lost homes due to foreclosure, and up to 10 million homes are at high risk for foreclosure over the next several years, according to the law center. HAMP is scheduled to end Dec. 31.